INTERVIEWS, REVIEWS & RELATED ARTICLES
"Craft is what enables you to be successful
when you're not inspired." - Brian Eno
Sonic Scoop JANUARY 20, 2013 - by David Weiss
THE UNFORGETTABLE TRIBUTE: MLK, U2, AND THE MAKING OF "PRIDE (IN THE NAME OF LOVE)"
MLK, among so many other things, was music.
With his voice alone, Martin Luther King, Jr. made music.
The rhythm and melody that permeated Martin Luther King, Jr. was evident not only in the way that he moved and spoke, but in the way that he inspired musicality in others. One of the greatest orators of our time - or any other - King's mastery of language made his speeches lyrical as well as life-affirming.
In his non-violent pursuit of civil rights equality, an a cappella delivery of MLK's words were sufficient to stir deep passions - he didn't sound like bagpipes or a cavalry bugle, but hearing his voice makes you immediately electrified, and once more strong for the fight.
It was an instrument that rightly won him the Nobel Peace Prize, and helped solidify his legacy as an intellectual leader for the ages via landmark speeches like "I Have a Dream", and so many more.
"PRIDE" - AN EMOTIONAL RIDE
It's no surprise, then, that his influence is imprinted within what people traditionally refer to as music - songs with singers, guitars, beats, bass, and keyboards. On the sampling front from Michael Jackson to Paul McCartney and Common, The Orb to Linkin Park and scores of others, MLK has served as a powerful sound source.
Arguably, one of the greatest-ever musical tributes to MLK stands out in the form of Pride (In the Name of Love), U2's masterpiece from the 1984 album The Unforgettable Fire. Riveting from Moment One, Pride is one of those cosmic confluences that defines a classic: the beautifully rhythmic guitar work of the Edge, drummer Larry Mullen, Jr.'s big beat is simultaneously complex and simply satisfying, Adam Clayton's musing bass foundation. And then Bono's incomparable voice comes, starting off in the verse's quiet awe before soaring to the hair-raising heights of the chorus.
Pride is a structurally simple song, and this upward spiralling cycle gets broken only by the bridge. At the 1:40 mark appears what is certainly the most uncomplicated guitar solo arrangement ever recorded in the history of rock: eight consecutive repetitions of the same single note, exquisitely energised by the Edge's unique battery of delay pedals and other effects.
If Pride is up your alley, then your experience of the song is 3:49 of perfection. Anywhere your ears land at any moment - vocals, guitar, bass drums - what you hear is deeply moving, and builds momentum as the song surges forward. The gang vocals that appear in the third chorus are the perfectly imperfect element that somehow takes Pride even higher, connecting band and listeners to the song's history-changing hero - a campfire singalong where a million people can easily join hands.
As did MLK himself, the song accomplishes so much in such a short span of time. And in yet another parallel, rather than diminishing, the power of Pride only grows with repeated exposure.
VIEW FROM THE STUDIO
One person with a unique perspective on U2's musical monument to MLK is the New York City-based engineer/mixer Kevin Killen. Working alongside The Unforgettable Fire co-producers Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois in his native Ireland, Killen was present for the numerous recording sessions that brought the song together.
As part of the engineering team that had recorded U2's War record and Under a Blood Red Sky mini-LP live album, Killen had already been treated to a front-row seat of the band's considerable capabilities. As is well-documented, The Unforgettable Fire's first set of sessions took place at County Meath's picturesque Slane Castle, enabled by a portable twenty-four-track recording system supplied by Randy Ezratty's mobile recording company Effanel Music. After a month of work at Slane, U2 and the rest of their crew relocated to the more controlled conditions of Dublin's Windmill Lane Studios to finish the record.
Before it could reach the pristine state we hear today, Killen reminds that Pride had to overcome some serious struggles before its completion at Windmill Lane. "There were two issues," Killen recalls, taking a break from a mix session at Ezratty's studio in NYC's Chelsea neighbourhood. "Bono hadn't settled on finished lyrics for the song, and so we were constantly looking at the arrangement to see if there was something about it that was preventing him from getting the words finalised. And Larry's drum part was proving to be tricky, especially getting the roll right going into the chorus.
"But then Bono was finally able to get the lyrics the way he wanted, and execute the track. It wasn't one particular word that was a problem, so much as he was just trying to get the exact sentiment to express. He knew what he was trying to say, but he was challenged just trying to get the right thing."
The gestalt moment - when Bono found what he was looking for - was instantly apparent to everyone at Windmill Lane. "The first time he sang the finished lyrics everyone in the control room looked at each other and said, 'That was definitely it,'" says Killen. "It was so obvious that he felt comfortable singing that lyric."
The poetic final lines had arrived. They were written about the great Martin Luther King, Jr., but they could have been said by him just as easily (and indeed three of them were), in one of his unforgettable speeches: "Early morning, April 4 / Shot rings out in the Memphis sky / Free at last, they took your life / They could not take your pride."
Much of Pride had already been recorded to that point - suddenly the moment had arrived to launch it to the next level. An AKG C12 mic was waiting for Bono, connected to the preamp of an SSL E Series console with an LA-2A compressor inserted across the buss output.
As the singer was approaching the mic in the live room, Killen stepped up to the proverbial plate in the control room, one hand at the ready on the remote for the Otari MTR 90 tape machine - the young engineer was poised to pop a punch-in that he'd never forget.
"He sang it in one take," Killen says. "I remember punching it in on the tape machine: Every hair on my body stood up. It was such a spine-tingling moment. He said something so concisely, so perfectly, about MLK's life."
Killen had the extreme privilege that only an engineer, producer, and an artist's bandmates can experience: to be there for the magic moments of a classic song's studio recording, getting the very first listen of a sound that will reach millions of ears for years upon years.
And, of course, Killen wasn't the only one whose spine tingled at the sound of Pride (In The Name Of Love). Released as the lead single for The Unforgettable Fire in September 1984, it was the biggest hit yet for U2, breaking the Top 5 in the U.K. and the Top 40 in the U.S. While its peak position on the Billboard Hot 100 was only Number 33, Pride was inexorably connected to turning U2 in what it is now - a very, very, very rock group.
"When the band got here in 1984," says Killen, "there was a very positive reaction to that track. And that was a very special period, stemming from the fact that the band were trying to do something different from their previous three releases.
"On that tour, they went from playing small twenty-five-hundred-seat theaters to four-thousand-seat theaters. Six months after that, they were playing arenas, so U2 saw their own career take off from that album release, up to a different level. And when you see them play Pride live, you realize that it's bass, drums, guitars, vocals, and no embellishments. It just works very well - very powerful, and very emotional."
When great leaders emerge, their power to inspire action and art is a gift uniquely theirs to give the world. Growing up in Ireland, it's reasonable to expect that Kevin Killen had no inkling that the life of Martin Luther King would help fulfill the aspiration held by so many in the music industry - to have a role in the making of a timeless song.
"At the time that we work on them, most engineers hope for songs to become classics," says Killen, whose GRAMMY-winning career continues on, with hit records for clients including Peter Gabriel, Elvis Costello, Kate Bush, Jewel, Bon Jovi, Shawn Colvin, Shakira, Sugarland, Bryan Ferry, and Duncan Sheik. "When you get to be a part of one of them, or a number of them, it becomes pivotal in your career. You're forever associated with the project, and that can never be taken away from you. Whether your participation was large or small, you're always connected to it.
"When I sit and listen to Pride," he continues, "I can remember that pivotal sequence of events that occurred when the song went from being difficult to record, to being realised. You look around the room, and realize you've captured a very special moment. That moment stays with you forever."
Engineers and producers who crave that sensation need no small amount of luck to be in that right place, at the right time. But Kevin Killen knows that audio pros who are focused on the music can also turn their quest for a classic into a self-fulfilling prophecy.
"Obviously, we all want to work with an artist that has something to say," he points out. "Our job is to somehow set the stage so they can truly express themselves in that environment, without judgment, and convey what they're trying to get out there. If you can be a part of that process, it can be incredibly rewarding not just for yourself, but for the artist."
In a magic case of things coming full circle, one light that made MLK shine so brightly was that he enabled many millions to express who they truly were, as well.
Equipped with his voice and views - and often aided by a microphone - Martin Luther King, Jr. engineered a movement that unequivocally impacted the world. U2 were among the many who have heard his call. They went on to reflect that spirit forever in a song.
No matter what your walk of life, the chance to somehow have a hand in a timeless work - or even an Earth-changing attitude - may be closer than you think. You too may create something that qualifies. All of us should certainly try.